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Pemodelan Online Community Relationship Management dalam Pembentukan Value Co-Creation di Industri Broadband Telekomunikasi Selular Indonesia /-- 2014

Online Community Relationship Management Modelling in the Creation of Value Co-Creation in Broadband Cellular Telecommunications Industry of Indonesia

PhD Theses from MBIPB / 2017-03-05 15:50:23
Oleh : Al. Agus Kristiadi, Manajemen dan Bisnis -Institut Pertanian Bogor
Dibuat : 2015-08-27, dengan 5 file

Keyword : Customer Engagement, Online Community Relationship Management, Service Dominant Logic, Sikap Pelanggan, Value Co-creation. Customer Engagement, Online Community Relationship Management, Service Dominant Logic, Sikap Pelanggan, Value Co-creation
Subjek : MANAJEMEN PEMASARAN
Nomor Panggil (DDC) : 10(6DM)Kri p

Pertumbuhan layanan broadband sebagai antisipasi dari menurunnya layanan voice dan SMS pada industri telekomunikasi selular Indonesia telah mengubah paradigma konsumen telepon bergerak dari information oriented ke arah social and communication oriented. Perubahan ini membuat pelanggan menjadi bagian dari masyarakat digital (digital society). Seiring dengan perubahan tersebut, ditambah dengan berkembangnya fasilitas sosial media serta tuntutan untuk memenangkan kompetisi, maka perusahaan penyedia layanan telekomunikasi selular dituntut untuk mengembangkan bisnis model online community sebagai ‘panggung’ yang mudah diakses oleh seluruh pelanggan yang berkepentingan terhadap fasilitas tersebut. Perusahaan pada konteks service dominant logic tidak lagi sebagai pengendali penuh penciptaan nilai, tetapi melibatkan pelanggan dalam proses value co creation. Service dominant logic menekankan aspek-aspek intangible marketing seperti pengalaman pelanggan, nilai yang diberikan kepada pelanggan, membangun interaksi dua arah dan mengutamakan jaringan dalam rangka membangun hubungan jangka panjang untuk mengelola pelanggan terlibat dalam proses value co-creation. Proses value co-creation membutuhkan kapabilitas perusahaan dalam pembelajaran kolaboratif customer knowledge co-creation management dengan meningkatkan keahlian dan keterampilan pelanggan serta mentransformasi hubungan dengan pelanggan dari sebelumnya pelanggan hanya berperan pasif sebagai penerima arus informasi produk dan layanan perusahaan menjadi mitra kompeten yang berperan dalam proses value co-creation.



Tantangan yang dihadapi perusahaan dalam membangun value co-creation dalam bentuk komunitas adalah membangun fasilitas yang mampu mengorkestrasikan pelanggan agar menghasilkan nilai yang superior. Maraknya keberadaan komunitas konsumen di Indonesia dan perubahan perilaku pelanggan telekomunikasi selular memunculkan kebutuhan perusahaan untuk mengembangkan bisnis model online community relationship management. Belum adanya studi empiris dalam penelitian model bisnis online community relationship dalam konteks industri broadband memunculkan pemodelan online community yang menarik untuk diteliti.



Tujuan disertasi ini adalah membangun model online community relationship management dalam industri broadband telekomunikasi selular, menganalisis pengaruh online community terhadap pembentukan value co-creation, menganalisis determinan keberhasilan online community yang diselenggarakan perusahaan, serta merancang strategi mengelola online community dalam membangun community relationship management serta menghasilkan value co-creation baik bagi pelanggan maupun perusahaan. Penelitian ini mengembangkan model penelitian atribut dan manfaat online community, model online community experience, model The co-creation of value exploring engagement behaviours in user generated content websites dan model consumer engagement.



Kerangka pemikiran online community relationship management dalam penelitian ini didasarkan pada sejumlah teori bahwa tujuan utama pelanggan (customer’s purpose) untuk bergabung dalam online community, bersama dengan efektifitas pencarian informasi dan komunikasi akan membangun pengalaman pelanggan berkomunitas (online community experience). Pengalaman pelanggan berkomunitas memicu terjadinya keterlibatan pelanggan (online community engagement) dan sekaligus membangun sikap pelanggan (customer attitude) baik terhadap merek maupun perusahaan. Pada akhirnya proses tersebut membangun value co-creation sebagai manfaat yang dirasakan bersama, baik oleh pelanggan maupun perusahaan dan diukur berdasarkan hubungannya dengan perusahaan (connection with the company), itikad baik (goodwill), intensi berbisnis (intent to do business) dan adanya komitmen pengaruh (affective commitment).



Penelitian online community relationship management dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel komunitas online dari pelanggan broadband TELKOMSEL, yaitu palingIndonesia.com dengan populasi sekitar 12.000 anggota. Pengambilan data dilakukan dari bulan September 2013 hingga November 2013. Jumlah sampel yang dibutuhkan sebanyak 264 responden. Teknik penarikan contoh menggunakan metode non probability sampling. Pengambilan data dilakukan melalui interview menggunakan kuesioner. Prosedur penelitian dilakukan dengan tahapan mengumpulkan literatur sebagai bahan pembuatan model dan kerangka penelitian, membuat kuesioner, melakukan wawancara terhadap responden, kemudian data hasil wawancara dilakukan uji reliabilitas konstruk-nya dan pada tahap akhir, dilakukan uji kecocokan model terhadap parameter model.



Analisis data penelitian menggunakan tools Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). SEM dipilih karena memenuhi tujuan penelitian, yaitu: memiliki fasilitas kausalitas yang memeriksa hubungan di antara variabel, mampu mengukur variabel secara tidak langsung dan mendeteksi kesalahan pengukuran, menyediakan modification index yang memberikan lebih banyak isyarat tentang arah penelitian dan pemodelan yang perlu ditindaklanjuti, mampu mengidentifikasi interaksi antar variabel, dan memiliki kemampuan menyelesaikan permasalahan non recursive path.



Penelitian menghasilkan model pengaruh online community terhadap pembentukan value co-creation sebagai model Online Community Relationship Management dalam industri broadband telekomunikasi selular di Indonesia. Determinan keberhasilan aktivitas online community adalah pemenuhan tujuan pelanggan (customer’s purpose), efektifitas pencarian informasi (information searching effectiveness) dan komunikasi (communication). Pembentukan value co-creation dalam online community dipengaruhi signifikan oleh customer attitude, communication, customer purpose, engagement dan information searching effectiveness. Model Online Community Relationship Management dalam pembentukan value co-creation adalah pengalaman keseluruhan pelanggan dari interaksi mereka dalam komunitas online yang menghasilkan keterlibatan pelanggan, membangun customer attitude, baik terhadap merk maupun perusahaan, serta menghasilkan value co-creation.




Implikasi manajerial sebagai tindaklanjut temuan yang ada adalah strategi mengelola online community relationship management dalam membangun value co-creation adalah: meningkatkan kapabilitas perusahaan untuk berdialog dengan pelanggan secara terbuka, memberikan peran pelanggan yang lebih besar dan mendukung ide-ide inovasi pelanggan sebagai bagian dari proses pembentukan value co-creation, membangun sistem penciptaan ide pelanggan sebagai bagian dari proses inovasi dengan membentuk metode evaluasi, mengimplementasikan ide serta memberikan insentif kepada mereka yang terlibat pada proses co-production, serta memberikan dukungan kepemimpinan (leadership) dari perusahaan dengan memastikan keberadaan seorang fasilitator yang mampu mendorong pelanggan untuk lebih aktif berinteraksi dan berbagi dan sekaligus mengkolaborasi pemikiran-pemikiran yang ada.



Penelitian ini menggunakan obyek penelitian komunitas online berorientasi kesamaan minat dari sebuah komunitas online di satu perusahaan telekomunikasi selular di Indonesia. Kajian penelitian dapat dikembangkan pada tipe komunitas online yang lain dengan industri yang sama maupun berbeda untuk memperkuat model online community dalam menghasilkan value co-creation pada online community di industri broadband secara general. Generalisasi terhadap hasil penelitian semakin tepat jika komunitas online yang dijadikan obyek penelitian memiliki tingkat partisipasi anggota yang tinggi dalam proses penelitian.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

The growth of mobile broadband services in anticipation of declining voice services and SMS in Indonesian cellular telecommunications industry has changed the paradigm of mobile phone consumers from information oriented toward social and communication oriented. This change make customers as part of the digital community. Along with these changes, coupled with the growth of social media facilities as well as the requirement for the company to win the competition, mobile telecommunications providers have to develop a business model of online community as a 'stage' that is easily accessible to all interested customers to the facility. The company in the context of service dominant logic has no fully control of value creation processes, but it involves customer in the process of value co creation. Service Dominant Logic emphasizes the intangible aspects of marketing such as customer experience, value that delivered to customers, building a two-way interaction and prioritize networking in order to maintain a long-term relationships and manage customer engagement in the process of value co-creation. The process of value co-creation requires the company's capability to collaborate customer knowledge co-creation management to improve customer skills and knowledge and transform the relationships with customer from only acts as a passive recipient of information of products and services previously to a competent partnership that plays a role in the process of value co-creation.



The challenge that facing by companies to create value co-creation in a community is to build facilities that able to orchestrate customer creating a superior value. The growth of consumers community in Indonesia and the changes of customer behavior of mobile telecommunications requires the need of companies to develop business model of online community relationship management. There is no empirical studies before in the research of business model of online community relationship in the context of broadband industry so that it is interesting to be explored.



The purpose of this dissertation is to build a model of online community relationship management in broadband mobile telecommunications industry, analyzing that the online community will influence on the formation of value co-creation, analyzing the successful determinants of online community that is held and managed by companies, as well as designing strategies to manage online community to build a community relationship management and boosting co-creation value. The research develops a model from the model of attributes and benefits of online community, model online community experience, model of The co-creation of value exploring engagement behaviours in user generated content websites and model of consumer engagement.




The framework research of online community relationship management was based on the theory that the main purpose of customers to join online community, along with the effectiveness of information searching and communication will build customer experience in the community. Customer experience will trigger customer engagement and simultaneously build customer attitude both to the brand and to the firm. Those process will build value co-creation as perceived benefits, either by customer or company. Value co-creation is measured based on its relationship with the company, goodwill, intentions to do business and affective commitment.



The study is using sample of broadband community from the largest mobile telecommunications provider in Indonesia, namely palingIndonesia.com with population around 12,000 members. Data collecting was done on September to November 2013. The number of sample required is 264 respondents. Sampling techniques using non-probability sampling. Data was collected through interview using a questionnaire. The research procedure are study literature to build model and framework, defining research design by collecting data questionnaires, conduct interviews with respondents and processing the data, testing the reliability and validity data and testing the goodness fit of the model.



Data analysis using tools Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). This tools met with research requirement that able to examine the relationship of causality between variables, capable of measuring indirect variables, able to detect measurement errors, provide modification index that gives more direction of research and modeling, able to identify the interaction between variables, and have the ability to solve the problems of non-recursive path.



The result of the research is a model of the impact of online community relationship management to the formation of value co-creation as a model of Online Community Relationship Management in mobile broadband telecommunications industry in Indonesia. The determinants of successfull online community activities is the fulfillment of customer's purpose, information searching effectiveness and communication. Value co-creation in the online community is significantly influenced by customer attitude, communication, customer purpose, engagement and information searching effectiveness. Model Online Community Relationship Management in the formation of value co-creation is the overall customer experience of their interactions in online communities that generate customer engagement, build customer attitude, both to the brands and companies, as well as generate value co-creation.



As managerial implications, the strategy to manage online community relationship management building value co-creation are: improving the capability to dialogue with customers, giving customers a greater role by supporting customer innovation as part of the process of value co-creation, develop a system of customer ideas and inovation by establishing evaluation methods, implementation, incentives scheme to those who are involved in co-production process. The company have to support leadership by ensuring the presence of facilitator who are able to encourage customer more actively to interact and share and simultaneously collaborate their ideas.



This study uses online communities from one mobile telecommunications company in Indonesia. Further research can be developed in other types of online communities in the same or different industries to strengthen the online community models in generating value co-creation. Generalization of the study will be more precise if the members of online community have high participation in the research.

Copyrights : Copyright � 2001 by Graduate Program of Management and Business - Bogor Agricultural University (MB IPB). Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted by author in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.

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