Path: TopDisertasiManajemen Sumber Daya Manusia

Model Pengembangan Modal Manusia Kualifikasi Jenjang Lima Di Program Diploma Tiga Usaha Perjalanan Wisata - Hijau/ -- 2013

Human Capital Development Model for Qualification Framework Fifth Level Of Diploma Three In Green-Tours An Travel.

PhD Theses from MBIPB / 2017-03-05 15:50:23
Oleh : Parlugutan Silitonga. , Manajemen dan Bisnis -Institut Pertanian Bogor
Dibuat : 2014-01-30, dengan 10 file

Keyword : Diploma-tiga, kompetensi, kualifikasi, jenjang-lima, model
Subjek : MANAJEMEN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA
Nomor Panggil (DDC) : 2(6DM) Sil m

Sekitar tahun 1740-an di Inggris Raya dan Eropa dikenal istilah Grand Tour. Grand tour artinya perjalanan yang cukup panjang tetapi bersifat menyenangkan untuk tujuan pendidikan dan kebudayaan (Pitana dan Diarta 2009. Menurut Pitana dan Diarta, di Indonesia kegiatan wisata ini sudah ada sejak 1910- an. Kegiatan wisata ini dilakukan oleh Vereeneging Toeristen Verkeer (VTV).

VTV merupakan Badan Pariwisata Pemerintah di Batavia yang bertindak sebagai tour operator dan travel agent yang belakangan ini dikenal dengan nama Tours and Travel atau Usaha Perjalanan Wisata (UPW).Kepariwisataan Indonesia

berkembang pesat setelah diselenggarakan konferensi Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA)pada tahun 1974 di Jakarta. Perkembangan pariwisata Indonesia sejajar dengan perkembangan pariwisata di kawasan Negara anggota

Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Kedatangan wisatawan ke kawasan ASEAN pada tahun 2009 sebesar 65 juta jiwa, Indonesia meraih pangsa pasar sebesar 9.80 persen (ASEAN 2010).Pertumbuhan pariwisata ini menuntut ketersediaan sumber daya manusia yang trampil dalam penelitian ini dibatasi pada usaha perjalanan wisata. Menurut Becker (1962) modal manusia (human capital) dapat dibangun melalui pendidikan dan pelatihan. Becker juga menyatakan perlunya pemagangan

on the job training di perusahaan dan off the job training di kampus. Schultz (1961) pada kesimpulan akhir penelitiannya menyampaikan bahwa gambaran perekonomian Amerika Serikat bertumbuh dahsyat,disebabkan modal manusia yang dikembangkan dengan efektif.Menurut Shimer (2005), pelatihan dan pendidikan dimaksud harus sesuai kebutuhan para pengguna, atau dunia usaha.

International Labour Oranization (ILO 1999) mendeklarasikan pentingnya Kerangka Kualifikasi Nasional sebagai solusi pengembangan modal manusia.

Pemerintah Indonesia menyadari hal ini dengan mengundangkan KKNI melalui Peraturan Presiden Nomor 8 Tahun 2012. Penelitian ini berfokus pada permasalahan kesesuaian matakuliah keahlian berkarya, kesesuaian kompetensi lulusan,kesesuaian lembaga sertifikasi memastikan capaian program diploma tiga usaha perjalanan wisata-hijau dan model pengembangan modal manusia

kualifikasi jenjang lima.

Penelitian ini mempunyai 4 tujuan utama yaitu: (1) menganalisis Kesesuaian kurikulum matakuliah keahlian berkarya (MKB)dengan kompetensi kualifikasi jenjang lima. (2). Menganalisis kesesuaian kompetensi Lulusan dengan kualifikasi jenjang lima.(3).Menganalisis lembaga sertifikasi yang sesuai untuk memastikan kompetensi lulusan.(4).Menyusun model pengembangan modal manusia kualifikasi jenjang lima usaha perjalanan wisata-hijau.

Metodologi penelitian ini terdiri atas metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif.

Metode kuantitatif menggunakan analisis korelasi Spearman. Metode kualitatif menggunakan analytic network process (ANP) dan soft system methodology.

Guna menjawab tujuan pertama dilakukan focus group discussion (FGD) dengan 14 orang responden perusahaan pengguna. Untuk menjawab tujuan kedua dan ketiga, j umlah responden terdiri dari 44 orang dosen dan 78 orang alumni dan analisis situasional. Guna menjawab tujuan keempat, softy system methodology menggunakan hasil ANP.Dilanjutkan dengan proses transpformasi root definition, rich picture, FGD dan face validation untuk memastikan kesesuaian model.

Sesuai analisis, ada matakuliah yang tidak tepat yang dapat digantikan dengan matakuliah lain yang relevan guna membentuk kualifikasi jenjang lima yang mencakup pariwisata-hijau sesuai kecendrungan pilihan wisatawan di masa depan Hasil analisis korelasi rank Spearman sebesar 0.464 dengan tingkat signifikan sebesar 0.00. Artinya ada hubungan yang nyata pada kategori sedang antara akreditasi dengan perolehan kompetensi setara jenjang lima.Rentangan alumni yang mengaku kompeten setara kualifikasi jenjang lima dari 23.81 persen sampai 92.86 persen dari PTPS yang belum terakreditasi sampai yang terakreditasi A. Namun demikian, alumni yang telah diberi tangggung jawab setara kualifikasi jenjang lima hanya 70 persen dari yang terakreditasi A.

Sementara yang lainnya jauh di bawah 70 persen dan tidak satu orangpun yang dapat membuktikan telah memiliki bukti kompetensi kualifikasi jenjang lima.

Lembaga Sertifikasi Profesi(LSP) Pihak Pertama diperlukan di kampus Selama proses pembelajaran. Namun pada akhir semester lima dibutuhkan kolaborasi dengan LSP Pihak Ketiga. Hasil korelas i rank Spearman sebesar

-0.383 (sign.=0.018). Artinya ada hubungan nyata yang negative pada kategori Rendah antara akreditasi dengan kepemilikan LSP pihak pertama. Artinya,

Semakin tinggi akreditasi semakin tidak diperlukan lembaga sertifikasi.

Sementara pelaksanaan kerjasama dengan LSP pihak ketiga dengan korelasi rank Spearman sebesar - 0.104 (sign.=0.535). Artinya tidak ada hubungan nyata dan negative pada kategori sangat rendah antara status akreditasi dengan adanya kerjasama dengan LSP pihak ketiga.Hasil ANP diperoleh ada 12 strategi yang diprioritaskan paka tiap kelompok.Prioritas ini digunakan menyusun model dengan soft system methodology. Disusun root definition, bahwa sistim skema sertifikasi yang melibatkan mahasiswa dan pemerintah pada perguruan tinggi yang memiliki kurikulum pariwisata-hijau agar menghasilkan lulusan kompeten kualifikasi jenjang lima melalui konsistensi, imparsialitas, manajemen efektif

dan holistik. Dari root definion ini disusun gambaran luas sistim skema sertifikasi (Rich piture) melalui logical thinking process. Model ditemukan dengan melibatkan Sembilan elemen dan keterkaitan antar elemen.Pelaksanaan sistem skema sertifikasi ini seharusnya didukung para pihak mulai dari instansi Kementerian Pariwisata dan Badan Nasional Sertifikasi untuk menyusun dan menetapkan skema sertifikasi jenjang lima. Pada akhirnya disarankan agar Kementerian Tenaga Kerja dapat memberikan pedoman rekrutmen dan remunerasi berbasis kualifikasi untuk memberikan motivasi dan kepastian manfaat kualifikasi jenjang lima usaha perjalanan wisata-hijau. Implikasinya memerlukan perubahan aturan pada Kementerian Pendidikan dan Tenaga kerja.

Sesuai dengan keterbatasan penelitian ini, disarankan agar penetian lanjutan pada jenjang enam dapat dilakukan.

Deskripsi Alternatif :

As of 1740, grand tour was popular in Great Britain. The grand tour is a

pleasant journey during yearly vacation aiming to enhance educational and cultura

activities. According to Pitana and Diarta (2009), such activities, in Indonesia had

been held by Vereeneging Toeristen Verkeer (VTV). VTV acted as tourism

promotion board by then in Batavia. Tourism has been flourishing in Indonesia

since Pacific Area Travel Association conference was held in Jakarta in 1974

According to secretariat of Association of South East Asian Countries (ASEAN)

in 2009 there were 65 millions tourist to these area and Indonesia had received

9.80 percent out of it. To cope with this growth, human resources development,

Skilled workforce in tours and travel for fifth level qualification is needed. This

study is focus on problem solving in curriculum compliance for X fifth level,

competency compliance of graduates of diploma three in tours and travel,

compliance of for fifth level.

This study has four main objectives that include the following (1) to

Analyze the compliance of core curriculum against competency standard of fifth

level ; (2) to analyze the compliance of alumni competency against fifth level of

national qualification-framework; (3) to analyze the suitable type of professional

certification body to achieve fifth level for diploma three in tours and travel; (4)

to design the model of human capital development for fifth level of national

qualification-framework (NQF).

According to Becker (1962), the human capital can be developed by

education and training.He then put a stress on the benefit of the on the job training

in industry and off the job training in campus to gain the human capital. However

Shimer (2005) indicated that such training and education shall be in compliance

with the needs of end- users. Hence, prior to that finding, Schultz (1961) had

initiated to express that the rapid growth in American economy are mainly backed

up by effective human capital development.The further way out to develop human

capital, International Labour Organization in 1999 had declared that national

qualification framework is the solution. The government has realized this idea by

issuing the President Regulation Number 8 in 2012 on NQF

The methodology of this study consist of quantitative and qualitative ones.

The quantitave by applying Spearman corelation analysis,while the qualitative one

by analytic network Process (ANP) and soft system methodology. The secondary

data from seven tourism college were collected. Prior to this research, the focus

group discussion (FGD) is held with 14 persons of end-user from tours and travel

tour guide, and tour leader association.The purpose of this FGD are to find-out the

needs for alumni of associate degree in tours and travel, the number of mandatory

competency units and the possibility to earn fifth level in line with NQF. At the

second stage, for the second and the third objective, there are 44 lecturers and 78

alumni of the said seven tourism college as respondents.The research units and the

number of respondents are selected purposively that able to represent 26 private

tourism college throughout Indonesia, aiming to save time and money as well. At

the third stage, individual depth interview is conducted with 8 person of experts

from vocational, standardization, certification, ministry of tourism, education

labor and certification body by using pairwise comparison questioner. Afterward,

the soft system methodology of root definition,rich picture,focus group discussion

and face validation were held to design the model

The results of the study showed that curriculum are not comply with fifth

level.There are plenty of credits that can be omitted and replaced by the ones that

able to build fifth level and able to follow the current trend of green tourism. The

compliance of alumni?s competencies to fifth level were not achieved by alumni

as the gap range from 25 to 92.8% of the non-accredited and A accreditation. In

terms of responsibility assigned to fresh graduate of diploma three, there were

only 70 percent gained by the alumni of A accr editation college, while others are

far left behind of this achievement. The first party certification body, during the

learning process is needed and then at the end of fifth semester, the college can

collaborate with third party certification body. The result of corelation rank

Spearman is -0.104 (Sign.=0.535). It means that there is a very low correlation

between accreditation status and cooperation with certification body.

The reults of ANP are priority strategies. These priority strategies are the

input for soft system methodology. The first is root definition, that the scheme of

certification system by involving student and government instances in tourism

college that implemented green- tours and travel curriculum to attain competent

fifth level output by consistency, impartiality, effective and holistic management.

Having this root definition defined, the rich picture was drawn to reflect the

wholeness of the system with the flow of ref erence to implement the scheme

certification system. Af terward, the FGD with the 6 person of experts was

conducted to figure-out the elements as idle conditions that actors can take role

individually and jointly in strong or weak level of relationship. The last step was

face validation method with two experts to assure that changes as proposed,

already done properly. The validated model include all stakeholders

interrelation coordination and their individual and mutual roles. The parties

consist of student tourism college, ministry of education, national education

standard authority national accreditation body, ministry of tourism, ministry of

labor, national certification body and end-user. Each element shall take part in

accordance with their individual functions and tasks to coordinate each other,

initiated by Ministry of Tourism in development of certification scheme for

fifth level in green-tours and travel. The implication of this study is to issue

regulation in support to its implementation. While Ministry of Labor is

induced to issue guidance in implementation of recruitment and remuneration

based on qualification. Due to limitation of this study, it is also suggested to

conduct a further research for the nex level. The next level is also categorized

as skilled profession and needed in ASEAN free trade area in 2015 and beyond

Copyrights : Copyright @ 2001 by Graduate Program of Management and Business - Bogor Agricultural University (MB IPB). Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted by author in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.

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